# BibTeX and bibliography styles

References and citations are best handled in a consistent way by using BibTeX. In this method, you supply all the relevant information about references in a .bib file'' without regard to ordering or style. (See the sample file myrefs.bib, below.) Then you let BibTeX format all citations and reference entries according to the chosen bibliographic style, and you don't have to sweat all the font and punctuation and ordering details yourself.

The reference/bibliography section usually appears at the end of an publication. In your LaTeX file, these two commands insert the reference section:

\bibliographystyle{xxx}
\bibliography{yyy}
The xxx'' is a style name -- plain or abbrv or siam or alpha or any of dozens of other available styles, many listed below.

The yyy'' is the name of the bib file (yyy.bib) containing the reference database.
For example, the command \bibliography{myrefs} would call on file myrefs.bib''.

Below find the following:

### Sample LaTeX source code file

file mydocument.tex'':
 \documentclass[11pt]{article} \author{John Doe} \title{Sample Document} \begin{document} \maketitle \section{Introduction} According to the handbook of van Leunen \cite{vanleunen}, this paragraph---and certainly this section---should be longer than one sentence. \section{More references} Here we see if the reference \cite{Narendra_1990} to the Narendra article comes out OK, in particular, with volume, number \& pages. The necessary information for those who would use BibTeX is available in the 1988 document of Prof.\ Patashnik \cite{btxdoc}. Interested readers who can read French may also want to read Poussin's proof\cite{primes}, though it has nothing at all to do with BibTeX. \section{Conclusion} This is the concluding paragraph. Here I cite another of Oren Patashnik's books\cite{btxhak} and, again, van Leunen's and Poussin's \cite{vanleunen,primes}. \bibliographystyle{plain} % (uses file "plain.bst") \bibliography{myrefs} % expects file "myrefs.bib" \end{document}

### Sample BibTeX database file

You can find .bib entries for major publications with a simple Google search. Links to some large online .bib databases (found with Google, 2004, keywords "book article incollection bib physics", etc.) include physics (1), physics (2), math (1), math (2), math (3), programming (1), programming (2), TeX/Publishing.

But it isn't hard to enter the database information yourself. Use any text editor; choose your own keyword for a publication, then list its information fields key="info", one line at a time in any order. Note this sample database file myrefs.bib'':

 @string{jgr = "J.~Geophys.~Res."} @MISC{primes, author = "Charles Louis Xavier Joseph de la Vall{\'e}e Poussin", note = "A strong form of the prime number theorem, 19th century", year = 1879 } @INBOOK{chicago, title = "The Chicago Manual of Style", publisher = "University of Chicago Press", edition = "Thirteenth", year = 1982, pages = "400--401", key = "Chicago" } @BOOK{texbook, author = "Donald E. Knuth", title= "The {{\TeX}book}", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", year = 1984 } @BOOK{latexbook, author = "Leslie Lamport", title = "{\LaTeX \rm:} {A} Document Preparation System", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", year = 1986 } @UNPUBLISHED{btxdoc, author = "Oren Patashnik", title = "{Using BibTeX}", note = "Documentation for general BibTeX users", month = jan, year = 1988 } @UNPUBLISHED{btxhak, author = "Oren Patashnik", title = "Designing BibTeX Styles", note = "The part of BibTeX's documentation that's not meant for general users", month = jan, year = 1988 } @BOOK{strunk, author = "Strunk, Jr., William and E. B. White", title = "The Elements of Style", publisher = "Macmillan", edition = "Third", year = 1979 } @book{vanleunen, title = "A Handbook for Scholars", author = "Mary-Claire van Leunen", publisher = "Knopf", year = "1979" } @ARTICLE{Zurek:1993, AUTHOR = {Zurek, R. W. and Martin, L. J.}, TITLE = {Interannual Variability of planet-encircling dust activity on {M}ars}, YEAR = {1993}, JOURNAL = jgr, VOLUME = {98}, NUMBER = {E2}, PAGES = {3247--3259} } @Article{Narendra_1990, author = {K.S.Narendra and K.Parthsarathy}, title = {Identification and Control of Dynamical System using Neural Networks}, journal = "IEENN", year = {1990}, volume = {1}, number = {1}, month = {}, pages = {4-27}, note = {}, annote = {} }

### Compiling the document and bibliography

To fully compile and cross-link references on must repeat some commands:

step
#
to create file mydocument.dvi: to create file mydocument.pdf: result of command:
1 latex mydocument pdflatex mydocument creates .aux file which includes keywords of any citations
2 bibtex mydocument bibtex mydocument uses the .aux file to extract cited publications from the database in the .bib file, formats them according to the indicated style, and puts the results into in a .bbl file
3 latex mydocument pdflatex mydocument inserts appropriate reference indicators at each point of citation, according to the indicated bibliography style
4 latex mydocument pdflatex mydocument refines citation references and other cross-references, page formatting and page numbers

### Some bibliography styles

The PDF file bibstyles.pdf illustrates how these bibliographic styles render citations and reference entries:
 1: ieeetr 2: unsrt 3: IEEE 4: ama 5: cj 6: nar 7: nature 8: phjcp 9: is-unsrt 10: plain 11: abbrv 12: acm 13: siam 14: jbact 15: amsplain 16: finplain 17: IEEEannot 18: is-abbrv 19: is-plain 20: annotation 21: plainyr 22: decsci 23: jtbnew 24: neuron 25: cell 26: jas99 27: abbrvnat 28: ametsoc 29: apalike 30: jqt1999 31: plainnat 32: jtb 33: humanbio 34: these 35: chicagoa 36: development 37: unsrtnat 38: amsalpha 39: alpha 40: annotate 41: is-alpha 42: wmaainf 43: alphanum 44: apasoft

(The web page http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~kjt/software/latex/showbst.html also illustrates several bibliography styles for easy comparison.) Of the 44 styles listed above, the first 21 insert just a number in brackets at the point of citation [2], while #22-37 use some variation of author/year [K.S.Narenda and K.Parthsarathy, 1990], and the rest use some idiosyncratic reference code. Some of the styles re-order the references in the bibliography in alphabetical order of author, while others list them in the order that they are first cited.

Several of these styles are part of all LaTeX installations, and others can be downloaded from http://www.tug.org/tex-archive/biblio/bibtex/contrib/. Each is a file with the suffix .bst; for example, to use abbrvnat style, you must have the file abbrvnat.bst installed in your LaTeX directory, or in your current working directory, or anywhere where LaTeX can find it.

Those dissatisfied with the 100+ styles available online can design their own, if they wish; see Oren Patashnik's Designing BibTeX Styles.

### Other reference information

(1) An FAQ regarding multiple author names; In a bib file you list all the authors' names together joined with word and'', e.g.,
author = "Jane Smith and E. B. Johnson and Strunk, Jr., William",
BibTeX then does the appropriate things to names and initials and punctuation, according to the chosen bibliographic style.

(2) When using BibTeX, the interaction between names and accenting is somewhat tricky. You should use G{\"o}del' or G{\"{o}}del', and not {G{\"{o}}del}' or {G\"{o}del}'. (Thanks to Dana Jacobsen for this tip.)

(3) STANDARD ENTRY TYPES:

@article
An article from a journal or magazine
@book
A book with an explicit publisher
@booklet
A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution
@conference
The same as inproceedings
@inbook
A part of a book, which may be a chapter (or section or whatever) and/or a range of pages
@incollection
A part of a book having its own title
@inproceedings
An article in a conference proceedings
@manual
Technical documentation
@mastersthesis
A Master's thesis
@misc
Use this type when nothing else fits
@phdthesis
A PhD thesis
@proceedings
The proceedings of a conference
@techreport
A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series
@unpublished
A document having an author and title, but not formally published
@collection
Not a standard entry type. Use proceedings instead.
@patent
Not a standard entry type.

(4) STANDARD FIELDS

Usually the address of the publisher or other type of institution. For major publishing houses, van Leunen recommends omitting the information entirely. For small publishers, on the other hand, you can help the reader by giving the complete address.
annote
An annotation. It is not used by the standard bibliography styles, but may be used by others that produce an annotated bibliography.
author
The name(s) of the author(s), in the format described in the LaTeX book.
booktitle
Title of a book, part of which is being cited. See the LaTeX book for how to type titles. For book entries, use the title field instead.
chapter
A chapter (or section or whatever) number.
crossref
The database key of the entry being cross referenced. Any fields that are missing from the current record are inherited from the field being cross referenced.
edition
The edition of a book---for example, Second''. This should be an ordinal, and should have the first letter capitalized, as shown here; the standard styles convert to lower case when necessary.
editor
Name(s) of editor(s), typed as indicated in the LaTeX book. If there is also an author field, then the editor field gives the editor of the book or collection in which the reference appears.
howpublished
How something strange has been published. The first word should be capitalized.
institution
The sponsoring institution of a technical report.
journal
A journal name. Abbreviations are provided for many journals.
key
Used for alphabetizing, cross referencing, and creating a label when the author'' information is missing. This field should not be confused with the key that appears in the cite command and at the beginning of the database entry.
month
The month in which the work was published or, for an unpublished work, in which it was written. You should use the standard three-letter abbreviation, as described in Appendix B.1.3 of the LaTeX book.
note
Any additional information that can help the reader. The first word should be capitalized.
number
The number of a journal, magazine, technical report, or of a work in a series. An issue of a journal or magazine is usually identified by its volume and number; the organization that issues a technical report usually gives it a number; and sometimes books are given numbers in a named series.
organization
The organization that sponsors a conference or that publishes a manual.
pages
One or more page numbers or range of numbers, such as 42--111 or 7,41,73--97 or 43+ (the +' in this last example indicates pages following that don't form a simple range). To make it easier to maintain Scribe-compatible databases, the standard styles convert a single dash (as in 7-33) to the double dash used in TeX to denote number ranges (as in 7--33).
publisher
The publisher's name.
school
The name of the school where a thesis was written.
series
The name of a series or set of books. When citing an entire book, the the title field gives its title and an optional series field gives the name of a series or multi-volume set in which the book is published.
title
The work's title, typed as explained in the LaTeX book.
type
The type of a technical report---for example, Research Note''.
volume
The volume of a journal or multi-volume book.
year
The year of publication or, for an unpublished work, the year it was written. Generally it should consist of four numerals, such as 1984, although the standard styles can handle any year whose last four nonpunctuation characters are numerals, such as \hbox{(about 1984)}'.

Other (nonstandard) fields

affiliation
The authors affiliation.
abstract
An abstract of the work.
contents
ISBN
The International Standard Book Number.
ISSN
The International Standard Serial Number. Used to identify a journal.
keywords
Key words used for searching or possibly for annotation.
language
The language the document is in.
location
A location associated with the entry, such as the city in which a conference took place.
LCCN
The Library of Congress Call Number.
mrnumber
The Mathematical Reviews number.
URL
The WWW Universal Resource Locator that points to the item being referenced. This often is used for technical reports to point to the ftp site where the postscript source of the report is located.