# Previous Digital Explorations Projects

## Ice Melting

Mathematicians and scientists, in addition to everyone who reads almost any account of the events of nature or the economy encounter units of measure. One of the primary challenges of chemistry and physics is to become comfortable with such terms as joule, hertz, mole, watt, and so on. Such terms represent units of measure. This application explores units of measure by simulating one of the most important findings of current environmental science: climate changes. NASA has confirmed that the ice caps are melting. What will this mean in terms of the level of seawater in the oceans?

## Monty Hall

Probability provides a way to discover how likely it is that some given action is going to result in a given outcome. Such discover involves calculating the number of possible ways that a given event might unfold. If a coin is flipped, the outcome of the flip is that the coin will be that the coin lands on the head or the tails side. Each side is one of two possibilities, which translates to a probability of 0.5. Understanding that the probability does not change with the number of tosses is important. Because the coin has landed on the head side ten times in a row does not mean that it is therefore more likely to land on the head side. As evident as such notions tend to be after studying statistics, it remains that millions of people still make important decisions using assumptions that statistics does not substantiate. This application is modeled after the Game show Lets Make a Deal where there are three doors and the contestant gets to pick a door. After they pick a door, a door that does not contain the prize is opened and the host allows the contestant to either stay with the door that they initially picked or to choose the other door. Using probability, we know that they contestant has a better chance at winning if they change doors instead of staying with the door that they initially picked. This may not be initially intuitive, but by extending it to the case where there are 10, 20 or 1 million doors can help understand the logic.

## Population Doubling

A key notion in biology and ecology is doubling time. How long does it take a given population to double in size? The doubling time for the human population on Earth is one of the most prominent features of the past few centuries. Whereas thousands of years characterized doubling times for many thousands of years, since 1900 the human population had doubled twice, first from 1 to 2 billion, then from 2 to 4 billion. During the early decades of the twenty-first century, it is expected to double once again.

## E and CO2

This model provides a breakdown of how oil, coal, and natural gas power generation contribute to levels of C02 in the atmosphere. The data used concern the U.S. only. To contrast carbon production with solar and wind production, the interactions of the application show that no contributions are made by non-carbon energy production. This might be challenged with respect the energy required to produce wind generators and solar cells, but the amount of energy required to produce the equipment is miniscule compared to the the ongoing burning different types fuels. The refineries shown in the application account for the production of fuel for automobiles, which are the largest single contributor of CO2.

## Orbits

This application provides the framework for modeling the paths of satellites, planets, or other bodies in space. It is laid out in a simple manner, allowing for extension in any number of directions. The model allows for the visualization of a number of scenarios. The code provides, for example, for asychronous and synchronous orbits, and changing elliptical dimensions.

## Slopes

Change the values for the height of the ramp and the power with which the vehicle launches off the ramp and not the different trajectories that the vehicle takes. You can change this lab in several ways: - Change the graphics for the car. - Add a different goal that the player is trying to accomplish.

## Riemann Sums

The Riemann Sums application allows you to investigate a number of scenarios in which the granularity of a given effort is evaluated in terms of its benefits and costs. When a carpet is trimmed to size, many or few cuts might be made to fit the carpet. At what point does the exactness of the fit become too costly? This application might be adapted to any number of scenarios, and in each such adaptation, how Riemann sums provide an inroad to understanding integration is further illustrated.

## Endocytosis

This simulations depicts the process of endocytosis where cells absorb molecules by engulfing them.

## Accelerated Bounces

This demo shows how to use particle physics and kinematics to realistically animate a bouncing ball.

## Brain Puzzle

The human brain is one of the most complex organs. This puzzle provides an opportunity to learn the main parts of the brain. This application represents a first pass at a more extended application that will include points for placing items in the right location along with supplementary information pertinent to the area of the brain.

## Kite Flyer

This project illustrates the relationship between wind-speed and the movement of a flying kite.

## House Energy

Technology can improve the energy efficiency of a home. A simple simple game combined with data derived from engineering studies shows how this is so.

## Spiral Bitmap

This projects shows how to leverage Actionscript to create artwork and animations with simple mathematics.